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Syntagmatic relations.

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default Syntagmatic relations.

Post by anya on Thu Feb 24, 2011 7:29 pm

Syntagmatic relations.
Syntagmatic relations are linear sequence (линейная последовательность) relations of LU when they are used in speech (are possibilities of combinations). Can be presented as a horizontal line.
They are important for determining the meaning of a poly-semantic word because different senses of poly-semantic words are revealed in the context (yellow dress — yellow press).
Context is the main stretch of speech which determines each individual sense of a poly-semantic word.
Contexts are
- Linguistic. Lexical valence of the word — the lexical contexts that a word may be used in.
a. Lexical — includes LU combined with the poly-semantic word which helps to determine its senses or meaning (heavy box, heavy rain, heavy industry).
b. Grammatical — is the grammatical structure of the phrase that helps to determine the sense of a poly-semantic word (to make a cake, to make smb do smth, to make a splendid actress).
c. Semantic — is a common use of words in certain repeatedly used environment (to solve the problem, to identify the problem, a complicated problem).
- Extra-linguistic — is constituted by the speech situation in which the word is used (I'll give you a ring — позвоню, подарю кольцо)

Paradigmatic relations.
Paradigmatic relations — the relations of a word within the lexical system of a language (functional contrasts). It is the basis for semantic classifications of words.
1) The first classification is based on the common concept that a word expresses. Words are subdivided into lexical-semantic groups and lexical-semantic fields. Both are closely knit sectors or vocabulary-united by a common concept. But a L-S group consists of words belonging to one part of speech (red-blue-black; mother-father-sister; to walk-to run-to go) and a L-S field — may comprise words belonging to different parts of speech (field of space: in,out, space, room, to extend)

2) The second classification is based on hierarchal paradigmatic relations. There are more general words (Hyperonym) (tree) and more specific (Hyponymy) (tree, old tree, oak, pine-tree).
Words in language form lexical-grammatical groups united by hypero-hyponymic relations.
Hyponymy is the mostly widely spread relation among LU. It is found in various parts of speech (more often in nouns). The hypero-hyponymic relations rreflect the way we see the world, its arrangement.

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