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Derivative structure of English words.

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default Derivative structure of English words.

Post by anya on Thu Feb 24, 2011 7:18 pm

Derivative structure of English words.
The nature, type and arrangement of the ICs (immediate constituent - непосредственная составляющая) of the word is known as its derivative structure.
The derivative base – is the part of the word from which the word was built.
The derivative pattern – is formed by derivative base and derivative affixes.
Though the derivative structure of the word is closely connected with its morphemic or morphological structure and often coincides with it, it differs from it in principle.
According to the derivative structure all words fall into two big classes: simplexes or simple, non-derived words and complexes or derivatives.
Simplexes are words which derivationally can't be segmented into ICs. The morphological stem of simple words, i.e. the part of the word which takes on the system of grammatical inflections is semantically non-motivated and independent of other words, e.g. hand, come, blue, etc.
Derivatives are words which depend on some other simpler lexical items that motivate them structurally and semantically, i.e. the meaning and the structure of the derivative is understood through the comparison with the meaning and the structure of the source word. Hence derivatives are secondary, motivated units, made up as a rule of two ICs, i.e. binary units, e.g. words like teacher is made up of the ICs “to teach” and “-er”. The ICs are brought together according to specific rules of order and arrangement preconditioned by the system of the language. It follows that all derivatives are marked by the fixed order of their ICs.

Types of derivational bases:
 bases that coincide with morphemes (morphological stamps) – dutiful
 bases that coincide with grammatical word-forms – unknown
 bases the coincide with word-groups – second-rateness
Derivative affixes are highly selective (the choice depends on etymological, phonological, semantic and structural properties of the base).

Types of derivations:
- Derivative words
- Compound words
Compound words proper
Derivational compounds.

Derivational relations are distinguished into:
- derivative clusters — a set of derivatives that can be formed from the same derivative base (friendship, friendly, unfriendly)
- derivative row — is made up by the derivatives that represent consecutive steps of the derivative from the initial derivative base (friend — friendly — unfriendly - unfriendliness)
- derivative categories — comprises derivations of different derivative patterns brought together by the same generalized derivative meanings:
(Teacher) N=V+er
(Historian) N=N+an
(Activist) N=Adj+ist
(Author) N=N+or

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